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2. Document Editing

This chapter describes the features common to all the TCM editors. This includes most of the user interface components, loading documents, saving documents, printing documents and the on-line help.

2.1 The User Interface of TCM


  
Figure 2.1: TCM main window.
\includegraphics[width=\textwidth]{p/mainwindow_2.ps}

When you start up an editor, you will see the so-called main window. For a screen dump of the main window see figure 2.1.

TCM needs in principle a 3-button mouse. The left and middle buttons are the most essential for drawing nodes and edges and the right button is only used for a pop-up menu. However, pressing or dragging with the left mouse button while you are pressing the Shift key has the same effect as pressing or dragging the middle button. This means that you can use TCM as well with a 2-button mouse. Instead of button-2, you use Shift+button-1. Another solution is to change the function of the right and middle mouse button with: xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 3 2". If you're using a so-called 5-button mouse (IntelliMouse with wheel-button), you can change the function of the right and middle mouse button with: xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 3 2 4 5". In this manual the mouse buttons are called from left to right: button-1, button-2 and button-3 (or from right to left, if you have a special left-hand adjusted mouse). We almost never mention button-3 because button-3 is only used for popping up the Edit pop-up menu in the drawing area, whereas the same menu is also accessible via the menu bar.

Except the basic drawing commands in the drawing area, all parts of the user interface can be accessed by keystrokes as well as by mouse operations. This manual assumes that you are using the mouse as much as possible.

    
2.1.1 Tiled buttons.

On the left edge of the main window of the diagram and tree editors there are two sets of tiled buttons containing a bitmap symbol. These contain two kinds of toggle buttons: radio buttons and check buttons. Radio buttons are a set of mutually exclusive selection options. The visual cue is a little diamond that is filled or unfilled. A check button is a non-mutually exclusive selection option. The visual cue is a little box that is filled or unfilled. When you pass the mouse pointer over a tiled button for a second or two, a one line bubble help clue is popped up giving the full name of what the tile represents.

  
2.1.2 Menu bar.

The menu bar located under the main window's title bar organizes most of the commands and features of the editors. The menu bar works in a straightforward way: press button-1 on an entry and keep it pressed down. A pull-down menu appears. Drag the mouse to the desired command and then release button-1. The menu is dismissed and the command is executed. Some menus contain nested submenus, called cascading menus, that work in a similar way. You cancel a menu by moving somewhere outside the menu and then releasing button-1.

Some frequently used commands can also be called directly, without going through a menu, by means of a keystroke shortcut, called an accelerator.   For example <Ctrl+L> is an accelerator for loading a document from file. You can see in the text of the menu entries which commands have an accelerator. Some menu entries contain check buttons that indicate that a certain property of the editor is switched on or off. If you select this entry, the value of the property will be inverted. See for example the Show Page Boundary entry in the Page menu. Some other menu entries contain a submenu of radio buttons indicating that a certain editor property has a value that is one from a set of menu choices. Try for example the Page Size entry in the Page menu.

  
2.1.3 Drawing area.

The drawing area, also called pane or canvas, is used to create, edit and delete the graphical items of your document by using the mouse. The mouse operations that are distinguished by TCM are summarized in figure 2.2. 


  
Figure 2.2: Mouse operations.
\includegraphics{p/mouse.eps}

The whole drawing area is larger than the main window. You can use the scroll bars on the right and bottom side of the drawing area to view the drawing area that requires more space than is available at any one time. By resizing the main window you can resize the visible part of the drawing area, keeping the other parts of the main window the same size as much as possible. 

TCM has its own coordinate system. By default, the TCM coordinates have the same distance as the coordinates of X Windows.  The origin is in the top left corner of the drawing area. Like the X Window coordinates, the x-coordinates increase from left to right and the y-coordinates increase from the top down. By scaling the ratio between the TCM and X Window coordinates can be updated.

  
2.1.4 Document Type.

This is visible as an uneditable text field above the drawing area. See figure 2.3 for how the document types are called.

2.1.5 Document name.

This is visible as an editable text field  above the drawing area. See section 2.2 for how to change the document name.

2.1.6 Modified.

This is visible as a toggle above the drawing  area. When the document has been modified, but it is not saved yet, it is on. If the toggle is on and you have loaded or created a new document, TCM warns you that the old document will be lost, and you get the opportunity to save the old document first.

2.1.7 Status area.

The result of the last issued command is displayed  below the drawing area in an unshaded and uneditable text field.

2.1.8 Directory.

The name of the project or working directory  is visible in an editable text field at the bottom of the main window right below the status area. See section 2.3 for how to change the project directory.

2.1.9 Scale value.

The current scale percentage is shown   in the bottom-right corner. By performing the scaling commands of the Scale menu, this value is updated.

  
2.1.10 Autoresizing.

This is visible as a toggle beneath the status area. When it is on, the shapes in the diagram or the cells in the table are automatically resized to make it fit the text that they contain (see section 2.5). When it is off, you should resize the shapes and cells manually to make them the right size.

2.1.11 In-line editor.

This is visible as a toggle beneath the status  area next to the autoresize toggle. When it is on, text can be typed directly into the drawing area. When it is off, text editing takes place in a text edit dialog window (see section 2.5).

   
2.1.12 Hierarchic document.

This is visible as a toggle beneath the status area, next to the In-line editor toggle. When it is on, the current document is hierarchic, i.e., nodes in this document can be hierarchically related. This toggle is only relevant for hierarchic editors (most diagram editors allow hierarchic documents).

  
2.1.13 Arrow Buttons.

In the bottom-left corner of the main window there are four arrow shaped buttons by which you can move the entire document over the drawing area. Amidst these four buttons there is a button labeled C, by which you can center the drawing on the first page in the drawing area, at least when the drawing is not larger than a single page. When the drawing is larger than one page, the drawing will be centered on the set of pages that the drawing occupies.


  
Figure 2.3: Document editors, document types and document name suffixes.
\includegraphics{p/suffixes-2.eps}

    
2.2 Changing the Document Name

You can type in a new name in the document name text field above the drawing area. When you enter <Return>, the document name is changed. TCM checks whether the name has a valid suffix  for the current type of document. See figure 2.3 for the required suffixes. Furthermore, the document name should contain only non-white space printable characters and it should not contain the characters {, } or /.

When a document is loaded, the document name field is set to the name of that document. If a new document is created, either by starting the editor without a file name or by issuing the New command, the newly created document will receive the default name untitled.

    
2.3 Changing the Project Directory

You can change the project (working) directory with the Project Directory entry  in the File menu of the TCM startup window (see figure 1.2). You can also change the project (working) directory by editing the directory text field at the bottom of the main window. You can change it by editing it and entering <Return>. TCM checks if the directory exists and if it is accessible. This directory is intended for storing the files related to the current (sub)project that you are working on. It is used as the starting directory for the file selection dialogs for loading and saving documents.

2.4 Loading and Saving Documents

You can instantly start a TCM editor with a specific document via the Open Document entry  in the File menu of the TCM startup window (see figure 1.2). The Open Document dialog is simular to the Load Document dialog described below. Selecting a TCM document will result in starting the TCM editor associated with the document extension. For example selecting a .ucd document will launch the TUCD (Use Case Diagram) Editor with the designated document loaded.


  
Figure 2.4: TCM File selection dialog.
\includegraphics[width=3.5in]{p/loaddialog.ps}

The File pull-down menu of the TCM editors contains the following entries: 

  • New (<Ctrl+N>). Creates a new document   called untitled.xxx. Where xxx is the suffix for the specific editor (figure 2.3). You can change the name of the new document in the document name text field. Before the new document is created, the current document that was being edited is deleted from the editor. If your current document is modified, TCM asks you if you want to save the document. Unless you have saved this document, the old document cannot be restored.

  • Load (<Ctrl+L>).   Pops up a file selection dialog to select the external file name for loading a document from file (figure 2.4). Before the document is loaded, the current document that was being edited is deleted from the editor.

  • Append (<Ctrl+A>).     Pops up a file selection dialog to select the external file name for merging the current document with another one from a file.

    Diagrams that are appended, can be positioned at an arbitrary place in the drawing area by means of a paste box, that works like the Paste command from the Edit menu (see section 3.9). Because appending is implemented as a Paste command, appending a document can be undone with Undo or be repeated by issuing the Paste command again.

    Tables can be appended either below or to the right of the current table. This is determined by an option menu in the append table file selection dialog. In both cases, the original table stays the same but new rows are added to the bottom and/or new columns are added to the right of the table. Append table has an Undo too.

  • Save. Saves the document  to an external file. If the document name is still untitled, a file selection dialog pops up, like Save As. Otherwise the document is immediately saved in the file document-name.suffix in the project directory. When you attempt to overwrite an existing file, TCM gives a warning and you can cancel your action.

  • Save As (<Ctrl+S>). Pops up a file selection dialog   to select or type in the file name to save the document to. After clicking OK, it acts the same as Save.

  • Save Selection As. Pops up a file selection dialog   to select or type in the file name to save the selected part of the document to. In diagram editors the selected shapes and the corresponding part of the graph is saved to file. In table editors the rows and columns that contain one or more selected cells are saved.

  • Quit (<Ctrl+Q>). Quits TCM. If your current  document is modified, TCM asks you if you want to save the document. Of course, you can also quit the editor by sending it a kill signal or by deleting the main window.

The file selection dialog (figure 2.4) allows you  to select a file in the right side listing or to navigate through the file system by selecting a directory, including the parent directory (..), in the left side listing. You can select a file or directory by either: 1. quickly double clicking on an entry, 2. single clicking on an entry and clicking OK or 3. filling in the field labeled Selection and clicking OK. The Filter field on top determines which file names are displayed. You can edit the filter setting, which takes effect after clicking the Filter button.

When you change directory in the load or save to file dialog then the directory field in the main window is updated to that directory after that you dismissed the dialog. So with the load or save to file dialog you can browse through the file system and the latest visited directory is always remembered in the directory text field. The export dialog from the Print menu also remembers its last visited directory but independently from the directory from the load or save to file dialog.

   
2.5 Editing Documents

There are two types of document edit commands: commands that are issued by the mouse, when the mouse pointer is in the drawing area, and the commands listed in the Edit menu. All diagram and tree editors share the same set of edit commands (chapter 3). All table editors share the same set of edit commands too (chapter 7). However, the edit commands of diagram and tree editors on one hand and table editors differ to a large extent.

All document edit commands, except the simple selection commands and the key-stroke text edit commands are undo-able and redo-able (multiple levels). All editors have certain commands to select items, to move and resize items, to edit the text of items, to add items and to delete items. Only the text edit commands are very similar across all editors and therefore they are described in this chapter. For the other commands you are referred to chapter 3 (diagrams and trees) and chapter 7 (tables).

     
2.5.1 Editing Text in a Document

In order to be able to type in a label of a shape in a diagram or the text in a table cell, the shape or cell should be the only currently selected shape or cell. For going into edit mode you can do the following. Move the mouse pointer into the single selected shape or cell, and when the mouse pointer has turned into a  \epsfig{figure=p/ibeamP.ps}, you can start editing by typing characters or by clicking button-1 again. In both cases the edit mode starts.

There are two edit modes: in-line editing and out-line editing.     In-line editing takes place directly in the drawing area and during in-line editing a black triangle shaped cursor is visible. Out-line editing takes place in a separate window with a text editor that is popped up when the edit mode is entered. That window contains an editable Motif text entry area, a menu bar, scroll bars and two buttons: OK and Cancel. You can indicate which of the two possible edit modes has to be used by a toggle button labeled in-line editor. That toggle is near the bottom of the main window and it is also accessible via the View menu. In general, in-line editing is more suitable for quickly editing short labels, whereas out-line editing has scroll bars and some extra edit operations and is more suitable for editing large chunks of texts. With out-line editing it is also possible to cut and paste text within and between text edit windows.

2.5.2 The In-line Text Editor

Here we summarize all operations that are available in the in-line editor.

  • Start editing.  Go into edit mode as explained above. When a triangle shaped black cursor is displayed in the drawing area, you are in the in-line editor.

  • Stop editing.  From the in-line editor you leave edit mode by clicking button-1 outside the shape or cell that is being edited or by clicking button-2 at any position of the drawing area. The text that is edited will be updated, and when the autoresize toggle is on, the shape or cell will be resized to make it fit the text that it contains. After the text is updated, you can still undo the update including the autoresize, by issuing the undo command from the Edit menu. Text editing operations are not undo-able commands but stop editing (from both the in-line as the out-line editor) is an undo-able command.

    When you issue another edit command (with the mouse or from the Edit menu) while you are in in-line edit mode, edit mode is aborted, the text is updated and the new edit command is executed.

  • Add character after the cursor.  Type in the character. Labels may contain all printable ASCII characters, except the <Tab> and may have any length. In many notational techniques labels may even contain spaces and newlines.

  • Delete character after the cursor.  Use the <Delete> key. 

  • Delete character before the cursor. Use the <BackSpace> key. 

  • Move cursor one character left.  Use the <ArrowLeft> key.

  • Move cursor one character right.  Use the <ArrowRight> key.

  • Move cursor one line up. Use the <ArrowUp> key.

  • Move cursor one line down. Use the <ArrowDown> key.

  • Delete all characters.  Use the <Escape> key. 

  • Move cursor before the first character. Use the <Home> key.

  • Move cursor after the last character. Use the <End> key.

  • Directly position the cursor.  Click with button-1 on the desired cursor position.

    
2.5.3 The Text Edit Dialog

Text edit dialogs are almost complete text editors, see figure 2.5. Text edit dialogs are not only used for out-line editing text labels but also for editing document and subject annotations. The operations in the dialog are mostly standard Motif operations. Here we will summarize the most important ones:


  
Figure 2.5: TCM text edit dialog.
\includegraphics[width=4.5in]{p/texteditdialog.ps}

  • Start editing. When you have popped up the text edit dialog  and the text area has the input focus then you can start editing. A blinking I-beam insertion cursor indicates where text will be inserted.

  • Stop editing. You leave the edit session by clicking  the OK button. The dialog is dismissed and the text (a shape label, an annotation, a cell text etc.) will be updated. When the autoresize toggle is on, the shape or cell will also be resized to make it fit the entire text. When the text editor is used for out-line editing, you can undo the update after you have clicked the OK button.

  • Cancel editing. You cancel with the Cancel button.  When you have canceled, the dialog is dismissed and the text that was being edited will not be updated. The modifications that you have made in the window are lost.

  • Add character after the cursor.  Type in the character. Labels may contain all printable ASCII characters, except the <Tab>.
  • Delete character after the cursor.  Use the <Delete> key. 
  • Delete character before the cursor. Use the <BackSpace> key. 
  • Move cursor left.  Use the <ArrowLeft> key to move the cursor one character left.
  • Move cursor right.  Use the <ArrowRight> key.
  • Move cursor one line up. Use the <ArrowUp> key.
  • Move cursor one line down. Use the <ArrowDown> key.
  • Move cursor one page up. Use the <PageUp> key.

  • Move cursor one page down. Use the <PageDown> key.

  • Delete all (<Ctrl+D>).  Use the Delete All command in the edit menu or press <Ctrl+D> in the text edit dialog. The <Escape> key cancels the dialog which is a built-in feature of Motif. This is an important difference between the in-line and the out-line editor.

  • Move cursor to beginning of line. <Home> moves the cursor in front of the first character of the current line.

  • Move cursor to end of line. <End> moves the cursor after the last character of the current line.

  • Directly position the cursor. You can click with button-1 on the desired cursor position. If you want to change the cursor position without changing the selection, press <Ctrl> while you click button-1.

  • Select text.  You can select a part of the text by dragging with button-1 over the region that you want to select; or when you click button-1 twice in a word then the word is selected; or when you click thrice, the line is selected; or when you click four times, the entire text is selected. Selected text is highlighted in reverse video.

  • Clear selection. Click button1 anywhere outside the selected region.

  • Copy (<Ctrl+C>).  Copy the selected text into the Motif clipboard.  Motif has a clipboard built-in which acts like a cut-paste buffer for copying and moving text between text areas of the same or different Motif applications.

  • Cut (<Ctrl+X>).  Cut the selected text into the Motif clipboard. This is like Copy but Cut deletes the selected portion after copying it to the clipboard. Note that before you can cut or copy, you have to select some text.

  • Paste (<Ctrl+Y>).  Pastes the contents of the Motif clipboard into the text edit area. The text is inserted at the current cursor position.

  • Find (<Ctrl+F>).   This command pops up a prompt dialog (figure 2.6) for finding a text string in the text edit area. The find text dialog has an input field to type the text that you are looking for and it has a check button and four push buttons that mean the following:
    • case sensitive. This check button says that the case of the string to  find is significant. By default, Find (and Replace) are case insensitive.
    • Find Next. Finds the next string that matches the string to find.  The insertion cursor of the edit area is put in front of the string that is found and the scroll bars are adjusted if needed. 
    • Find All. Highlights all strings that matches the string to find and the dialog says how many occurrences are found.
    • Dismiss. Closes the dialog.
    • Clear. Clears the text entry field for the string to find.

  • Replace (<Ctrl+Z>).  This command pops up a prompt dialog (figure 2.7) for finding and replacing text strings in the text edit area. The replace text dialog has two input fields, one to type the text that you are looking for and one to type the text that you want as a replacement. The replace dialog has a check button and five push buttons that mean the following:
    • case sensitive. Same as in the Find dialog.
    • Find Next. Same as in the Find dialog. 
    • Replace Next. The next string found after the insertion cursor is replaced by the string to replace with. Before you do a Replace Next, you can do a Find Next so that you see which string you replace. Also note that the string to find should not be empty, but the replacement string may be empty. 
    • Replace All. All strings that match the string to find are replaced by the string to replace with (global substitution).
    • Dismiss. Closes the dialog.
    • Clear. Clears both text entry fields.
    In the diagram and table editors the find dialog and the replace dialog are also used for finding and replacing text in the entire diagram or table. These operations are issued from the Find and Replace entries in the Search menu of the main window (see section 2.11).

  • Load (<Ctrl+L>).  This command shows a file selection dialog by means of which you can select an arbitrary text file. When you press OK, the contents of the file is loaded into the text editor. You can load any text file of any size.

  • Save as (<Ctrl+S>).  This command shows a file selection dialog for saving the contents of the text editor to a file.

  • Print (<Ctrl+P>).  This command directly sends the contents of the text editor to the current printer. The text is first converted to PostScript and it receives a header. At the moment it is only possible to directly print text with the Print of this dialog in Helvetica font and with point size 9. If you want the text printed differently, you have to save it first to a file and then post-process it yourself for instance with the program text2ps that is supplied together with TCM (see man text2ps).


  
Figure 2.6: TCM find dialog.
\includegraphics[width=2.5in]{p/finddialog.ps}


  
Figure 2.7: TCM replace dialog.
\includegraphics[width=3.25in]{p/replacedialog.ps}

2.6 Viewing Documents

The View menu  contains certain commands that have to do with how a document is viewed or how it can be edited in the document itself. View commands do not actually change something in the document. The Scale operations are in a separate menu but these are view commands too (as opposed to edit commands). The document editors have different View menu entries, but all editors share at least the following View menu commands:

  •   The Refresh command (<Ctrl+V>) is the first entry in the View menu. It redraws the contents of the drawing area. This command can be needed when pixel droppings or left-overs occur in the drawing area.

  •   The Grid  facilitates the alignment of the shapes in the drawing area. Only the diagram and tree editors have the Grid menu because tables are aligned in a different way. The grid cannot be printed. The options of the Grid menu are settings of the editor and therefore they are not saved to file when a document is saved. The Grid menu contains the following entries: 

    •   Show Grid. Draw or hide the grid in the drawing area. The grid is visible as a raster of dashed vertical and horizontal lines at an equal distance. This distance is called the grid size.

    •   Grid Size. Set the size of the grid with a pop-up slider dialog. The default grid size is 30 pixels.

    •   Point Snapping. When point snapping is on, the positions of the shapes are constrained to discrete positions at a certain point distance. When point snapping is off, the shapes can be placed at any position.

    •   Point Distance. Set the point distance with a pop-up slider dialog. The default is 10 pixels. The point distance is used when point snapping is on. The grid size and the point distance are independent from each other.

  •   The Autoresizing toggle. Turns Autoresizing on or off. Autoresizing means that shapes or cells of a table adapt themselves automatically to fit the texts that they contain. It also (re)sets its counterpart toggle in the main window.

  •   The In-line editor toggle. Turns in-line editing on or off. In-line editing means that text editing takes place directly in drawing area whereas out-line editing means text editing takes place in a separate text edit window (see section 2.5.1). It also (re)sets its counterpart toggle in the main window.

2.7 Printing Documents

The page layout determines how a document is sent to the printer or saved as PostScript. See section 2.9 for the commands which determine the page layout. When a document is printed or saved as PostScript, each page that contains a part of the drawing is printed or saved. The Print menu  contains the following entries:

  •   Print (<Ctrl+P>). You can send the drawing directly to a PostScript printer with this command. When you have a printer that can not print PostScript, this command will print a PostScript listing. See the frequently asked questions for how to get a more valuable result.

    The default printer is the printer name in the TCM configuration file $HOME/.tcmrc or
    TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf, whereby the options in the first configuration file is user-specific and overrides the options in the latter, system wide, configuration file. When this variable is not set, the printer will be set to the value of the PRINTER environment variable.

    In the Printer Properties submenu you can see and modify the printer settings that are used and in the Page menu you can change the page layout. In general, the drawing is printed exactly as it is displayed in the drawing area. For seeing what is exactly sent to the printer you can issue the Show Preview command from the same menu.

  •     Export (<Ctrl+E>). This pops up a file selection dialog for saving the picture to some graphics format. Currently, you can save as plain PostScript (PS; the same as what is sent directly to the printer), as Encapsulated PostScript (EPSF; a format that is more suitable than plain PostScript for including drawings into LATEX or Troff documents), as Fig (either with PS fonts or with LATEX fonts), or as Portable Network Graphics (PNG), which was created in response to the GIF licensing debacle and is optimized for graphics use on the Internet and other on-line services. PNG is even supported by MS-Word, so you can incorporate your TCM output in MS-Word too if you want to.

    In the dialog there is an option menu called ``Format for Exported document'', in which you can set the intended output format. In the dialog box a default export file name is already filled in. This is the document name with suffix .ps, .eps or .fig. If you attempt to overwrite an existing file, it pops up a dialog from which you can cancel the operation. Furthermore, when you have dismissed the dialog, the last visited directory in this dialog is remembered as well as the last chosen output format in the option menu.

    The Fig format is the file format that is read and written by Xfig (http://www.xfig.org). Figures in Fig format can be converted into many other file formats using fig2dev from the TransFig package. Note, that we use fig2dev in TCM itself too for the generation of the PNG format.

  •     Show Preview. Starts up an external PostScript viewer, for previewing the document as it would be printed. Hopefully this command saves some trees. You can use your preferred external PostScript viewer program ghostview, gv or pageview. You can specify which viewer is used in the configuration file $HOME/.tcmrc (user specific) or in TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf (system-wide). Also, you can set another PostScript viewer in the Preview Command dialog window, from the Printer Options submenu.

  •   Printer Queue. Use this option to see the printer queue of the current printer in a pop-up window. By clicking on a line in the queue you select a print job. The Remove button tries to remove the selected job from the queue. Update redisplays the current queue. Dismiss removes the window. TCM uses external Unix programs for the printer queue. If it cannot find the right programs, it warns that the queue cannot be viewed or that jobs cannot be removed. The external Unix programs that are used can be changed temporarily in the Printer Options submenu or more permanently in the TCM configuration files TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf (system-wide) or $HOME/.tcmrc (user specific).

  •   Printer Properties. This is a menu that contains entries for some properties of the printer. The default values are read from the user-specific file $HOME/.tcmrc (if it exists) and from the system-wide files TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf and TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf. .tcmrc has a higher precedence than tcm.conf.

    In the Printer Properties menu these values can be changed temporarily i.e. only during the lifetime of the editor. If you want to save the changed options, you have to edit some TCM configuration file. The TCM configuration file is only read when an editor is started.

    •   Printer Name. Use this to change the printer name. The default printer is the value of the PRINTER environment variable. When PRINTER is not set, the value found in a TCM configuration file is used instead.

    •   Number of Copies. Use this to change the number of copies that will be printed. The default is 1. Change the setting by moving the little slider from left to right. If the number of copies is greater than one then for each time you print, one single print job is generated and often the printing will go faster then when you send separate copies.

    •   Print Command. The default print command is read from one of the TCM configuration files.

    •   Printer Queue Command. The default command for showing the printer queue is read from the TCM configuration file. The TCM configuration file contains the printer queue command of the specific Unix variant.

    •   Printer Remove Command. The default command for removing a job from the printer queue is read from the TCM configuration file. The TCM configuration file contains a command of the specific Unix variant.

    •   Preview Command. The default command for previewing the PostScript document is read from the TCM configuration file. The TCM configuration file contains the option PreviewCommand. That is some Unix command like "/usr/X11/bin/ghostview", but an other PostScript viewers such as pageview or xpsview should work as well.

    •   Print Colors. Specifies whether colors are printed or saved in PostScript or not. When it is off, colors become gray-scales.

    •   Print Duplex Pages. Causes the output to be printed in duplex mode, i.e. pages are printed two-sided if the printer supports that. The binding is as if the resultant pages are to be bound together with their leftmost edge.

    •   Print Tumbled Pages. This option is only useful with the Duplex option on. It causes the ``backside'' pages to be flipped relative to the front side pages.

    •   Print banner page options Here you can configure the various banner page options TCM supports.

      •   Print Default Banner Page. When you mark this option, a default system banner page will be printed in front of the printed document. This can be useful when you share a network printer with many other users.

      •   Print No Banner Page. When you mark this option, no printer banner page will be printed in front of the printed document. This can be useful when you are the only user of this printer, or you just want to save some trees.

      •   Print TCM Banner Page. An (extra) PostScript banner page will be printed in front of the printed document. The banner page contains the document name, the current date and the login name of the user. This is useful when the printer does not print banners or when you think that this banner is cool.

2.8 The Scaler

The Scale menu  contains the following entries:
  •   Make Larger (<Alt+L>). Upscales the document. The drawing is made larger, up to about 1000 The font sizes are scaled when your X server supports scalable X fonts.

  •   Make Smaller (<Alt+S>). Downscales the document. The drawing is made smaller, down to about 10 drawing. The font sizes are scaled when your X server supports scalable X fonts.

  •   Normal Scale (<Alt+N>). Returns to normal view, i.e. no scaling.

  •   Whole Drawing (<Alt+W>). Scales the document with a percentage that makes that the whole document fits to one page. The page size and orientation can be set in the Page menu.

  •   Scale Factor (<Alt+F>). Set the scale factor with a pop-up slider dialog. The default scale factor is 1.2.

A slider dialog  is a dialog that is used to set an editor option from a subrange of values by adjusting a horizontal slider. For an example of a slider dialog see figure 2.8.


  
Figure 2.8: TCM slider dialog.
\includegraphics[width=2.75in]{p/sliderdialog.ps}

  The current scale percentage is always visible in the bottom-right corner of the main window and is updated by the scaling commands. The scale percentage is the  ratio between the TCM coordinates and the X Window coordinates, which is 100% when there is no scaling. By making the drawing larger you make this percentage larger, by making the drawing smaller, you make percentage smaller. The scale factor is the factor by which the scale percentage is increased or decreased during scaling. The scale percentage and factor are saved to file together with the document. When the drawing is saved as PostScript, EPSF, Fig or PNG-format the output is also scaled by the scale percentage.

   
2.9 The Page Layout

The Page menu commands determine the page layout. Any change in page layout is directly made visible in the drawing area. TCM is WYSIWYP, i.e. What You See Is What You Print. The page layout has effect when plain PostScript is generated either when the document is printed, previewed or exported as plain PostScript. The Page menu commands have no effect on the document when saved as Encapsulated PostScript, as this format is independent from the page layout by definition. The Page menu  contains the following entries:

  •    Show Page Boundary. Draw or hide the page boundary. The positions of the boundaries are determined by the page size and the page orientation.

  •     Page Orientation. Sets the page orientation to Portrait (default) or Landscape. When the page boundaries are shown, you see that the boundaries are repositioned. This affects the orientation in which the document is printed or saved as plain PostScript.

  •   Page Size. Sets the page size. The current available sizes are A4 (default, 210x297 mm.), A3 (297x420 mm.), Letter (8.5x11 inches), Legal (8.5x14 inches) and Executive (7.5x10 inches). The default page size can be changed in the TCM configuration file.

  •   Include Page Numbers. This is an option in the Page menu to show page numbers. Page numbers will be shown and printed when that option is on. Page numbers are normally displayed at the bottom of the page, but when the document info is displayed as a footer, page numbers are displayed at the top of the page.
  •    Include Document Info. This is a toggle menu which makes it possible to show information about the document in the drawing area and on paper, because this information will be saved as plain PostScript too. This information can be added as a header, as a footer or both as a header and a footer. The information consists of the document name and type, the creation date and time, the author, the current tool, the current user and the current date and time. By issuing the refresh command or by generating PostScript the information is updated (including the time strings). As an aside, the user cannot alter this information in the editor, except the document name.

The page orientation, the page numbering and the inclusion of document info are saved in a document file. However, the page size and boundary are are options of the editor not of the edited document. So when you save a document the latter options are not saved.

   
2.10 The Properties Menu

The Properties menu contains commands for performing operations for updating line and text properties that cannot be done from within the in-line or out-line editor. The following commands are available:

  • Update Line Style.   This entry pops up a dialog window for choosing a line style. See figure 2.9. The line styles include solid, dashed, dotted, dual (i.e. double solid lines), invisible (nothing is drawn) and wide dotted. In the case of the table editors the dialog window shows an extra list of radio to indicate which sides of a cell should be updated. This command is only available in the generic diagram editor (TGD) and the table editors.


      
    Figure 2.9: TCM line style chooser dialog.
    \includegraphics[width=2.5in]{p/linestyledialog.ps}

  • Update Line Width.   This entry pops up a dialog window to set the line width. See figure 2.10. The default line width is 1 pixel. When you issue a command to change the line width, each selected shape or cell is redrawn according to this new line width.


      
    Figure 2.10: TCM line width dialog.
    \includegraphics[width=2.5in]{p/linewidthdialog.ps}

  • Update Text Font.   This entry pops up a dialog window to update the font family, the font style and the point size (figure 2.11). For each of the three attributes there is a list of toggle buttons. Also, each list of toggle buttons in the dialog has an extra check button called update attribute that indicates whether that font particular attribute should be updated or not.

    Note that a shape in a diagram that has more than one text label cannot have different fonts for the different text labels.


      
    Figure 2.11: TCM font chooser dialog.
    \includegraphics[width=5in]{p/fontdialog.ps}

    The font families include Helvetica (default), Times, Courier, New Century Schoolbook and Symbol (Greek). The font styles are Roman (default), Bold, Italic and Bold-Italic. The standard available point sizes are 8, 10 (default), 12, 14, 18 and 24. When you use Adobe fonts then the X fonts and the corresponding PostScript fonts look the same. The fonts of the PostScript output contain the ISO Latin-1 character set.

    In TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf you can see which (types of) fonts are used for the TCM documents by default. If you wish some other font you can edit this file (or better, put the options in a personal file $HOME/.tcmrc ). TCM uses scalable X fonts by default (you see that when you use the Scale commands). If these fonts are not installed or don't look good for your tastes then you can tell TCM to work with unscalable fonts by specifying:

           { ScalableFonts False }.
    
    If you wish fonts of a certain foundry, e.g. only Adobe fonts, then specify that with the following line in TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf or $HOME/.tcmrc :
           { FontFoundry Adobe }
    

    If you wish some other font you can edit this file (or better, put the options in a personal file $HOME/.tcmrc ). TCM uses scalable X fonts by default (you see that when you use the Scale commands). If these fonts are not installed or don't look good for your tastes then you can tell TCM to work with unscalable fonts by specifying:

           { ScalableFonts False }.
    

    If you want additional font sizes on top of the standard font sizes listed above you can put these in your personal config file $HOME/.tcmrc (preferred) or add these to the TCM config file TCM_CONFIG/tcm.conf. If you want e.g. to add Point Size 9 and 11 to the standard sizes, the following lines should be added:

           { AddPointSize 9 }.
           { AddPointSize 11 }.
    

  • Update Text Alignment.    This entry pops up a dialog window to update existing multi-line texts. See figure 2.12. Each selected shape receives this text alignment. In table editors there are distinct entries to update the column alignment and the row alignment. The text alignments include Left, Center (default) and Right.


      
    Figure 2.12: TCM text alignment dialog.
    \includegraphics[width=2.5in]{p/textalignmentdialog.ps}

  • Set/Unset Text Underlining.    This menu option sets/unsets (toggles) the text underlining of the selected shapes.

  • Update Line Color.    This entry shows a selection dialog box to update the line color (figure 2.13. The scrolled list contains the names of all available colors. The corresponding color can be previewed in a colored rectangle under that list. When you click Apply the line color of each selected shape or cell is updated.


      
    Figure 2.13: TCM color chooser dialog.
    \includegraphics[width=2.5in]{p/colordialog.ps}

  • Update Text Color.   This works similar to Update Line Color except that when you click Apply the colors of the texts are updated.

  • Update Fill Color.   The dialog window here shows an extra toggle button to indicate whether the shape or cell should be filled or not. The chosen color from the list will be the fill color when the shape or cell is filled.

  • Default Properties. 

    • Default Line Width.    This works similar as Update Line Width. The default line width is the line width of every new shape or new lines in a table.

    • Default Text Font.   This entry pops up a similar font chooser dialog window as the Update font entry. The texts of every newly created shape and the texts of new cells in a table, will get this default font. Page headers and footers, page numbers and table row and column labels are also drawn in the default font.

    • Default Text Alignment.    This entry pops up a similar dialog window as Update Text Alignment In the case of table editors there is a distinct Default Column Alignment and a Default Row Alignment entry. The default column alignment can either be Left, Center or Right. The row alignment can either be Top, Center or Bottom.  

    • Default Line Color.    This works similar to Update Line Color. This is the color of every newly created shape or the new lines in table.

    • Default Text Color.    This works similar to Update Text Color. This is the color of the text every newly created shape or the text in new cells in a table.

    • Default Fill Color.    This works similar to Update Fill Color. This is the fill color of every newly created shape or the new lines in table. The dialog contain a toggle to indicate that shapes or cell are filled by default or not.

  • Node/Edge or Cell Annotation. 

    Pops up a text edit dialog for giving the selected node/edge or cell an annotation. This is free text and can for example contain the description or purpose of the node, edge or cell. See section 2.12 for advanced text edit operations on annotations.

   
2.11 The Search Menu

The Search menu contains commands for performing find and replace operations on text that cannot be done from within the in-line or out-line editor. The following commands are available:

  • Find.  Pops up a find dialog like the Find text operation presented in section 2.5.3. The find dialog looks like figure 2.6, except that the find dialog from the Search menu has an extra check button named substring. When this option is set, this indicates that the text to find should not match the entire shape label or cell text but only a substring. Find substring is the default. When the Find string is an empty string then it matches only with empty labels.

  • Replace.  Pops up a replace dialog like the Replace text operation presented in section 2.5. The replace dialog looks like figure 2.7, except that the replace dialog from the Search menu has an extra check button named substring. This indicates that the text to find should match only a substring of the entire shape label or cell text. Replace substring is the default. The string to find and the string to replace with can be empty but not both at the same time.

   
2.12 Checking and Annotating Documents

The Document menu  contains the following entries.
  • Document Info.  Pops up a text view dialog that contains some information about the tool and the document that is being edited.

    The following information about the current tool session is given:

    • Tool name and version.
    • File format version. This is the file format that the tool generates. The tools are supposed to read all file format versions less than or equal to that version. When TCM encounters a never file format version it will attempt to read it in, but success is not guaranteed. You better upgrade to a newer version then.
    • The Unix login name of the user running this editor.
    • The current date and time.
    • The project (working) directory.
    • How many changes (in terms of how many edit operations) were made to the current document after it was created or read in.
    It shows the following information about the document being edited:
    • Document type.
    • Document name.
    • Unix login name of the author. This is the login of the user that created the document.
    • Date and time of creation.
    If the document was read from a file, it also shows:
    • Unix file name from which the document was loaded.
    • The file format version found in that file.
    • Tool that wrote the file.
    • Date and time when the file was written by the tool.
    Except the current document name, none of these values can be changed from within the tool. Note that by default the name of the document is equal to the file name when it is saved. When a document file is loaded and it contains a document name that is different from the file name (because the file had been renamed), a question dialog is raised which gives the user the choice between these two names for the new document name.

  • Document Source.  Pops up a text view dialog that contains the source of the document file as being loaded last time from disk.

    All text editor options as described earlier are available here. Advanced users of TCM may hack the file directly if they want to, but do not expect intelligible feedback if you make a mistake. For making the changes take effect, save the contents of the dialog back to file and then (re)load the document via the File menu.

    Please take a look at appendix C for a detailed specification and explanation of the TCM file format.

  •    Document Annotation. Pops up a text edit dialog for giving the document an annotation. This is free text and can for example contain the description or purpose of the document, the history of the document or references to other documents. The annotation text can be loaded from an ASCII file, saved to an ASCII file and printed (as Postscript). Furthermore, it is possible to Cut or Copy (a part of) the text to the Motif clipboard and it is possible to paste the text from the clipboard in another text edit window. So for example, when you want to add annotation text as a comment to a diagram, you can select the text by dragging with mouse button-1 (the selected text is shown in reverse video) and copy the text from the annotation text edit dialog to the clipboard. Then you open the out-line editor of the comment node (the in-line editor toggle should be off), and you choose Paste from the Edit menu of the out-line editor, the text is pasted from the clipboard into that window. When you press the OK button of the out-line editor, the text appears as a comment node.

  •   Check Document Syntax. Shows the result of the checks for soft constraints (constraints that can be temporarily violated) in a text view dialog. You should correct the errors yourself. The checks are specific for the document type involved, so check out the section in this manual where that type of document is explained. For an example of the result of checking an erroneous data flow diagram see figure 2.14.


      
    Figure 2.14: The result of check document on a DFD.
    \includegraphics[width=4.5in]{p/checkdocument.ps}

  •   The Hierarchic Document toggle. Turns Hierarchic Document on or off. Hierarchic Document means that nodes in this document can be hierarchically related. This toggle is only relevant for hierarchic editors (most diagram editors allow hierarchic documents). It also (re)sets its counterpart toggle in the main window.

Both Document Info as Check Document use a text view dialog  which resembles a text edit dialog except that the text is read-only. So you cannot edit the text (also including Cut, Replace and Paste) and you cannot load text from file. It further works pretty much the same as a text edit dialog. Text view dialogs are also used for the on-line help.

   
2.13 On-line Help

The on-line help is kept as simple as possible, because it is possible to read this user manual as HTML document, including hyper-links and with an index and a table of contents. It is not our intention to duplicate everything in the form of on-line help built-in in the editors. There is a collection of Help menu entries and each Help menu entry pops up a text view dialog. The on-line help contains the basic bare minimal that you have to know to be able to work with the editor. From the on-line help dialog you can save the text to a file, print it as PostScript or you can copy some of it to the clipboard. Furthermore, there is a Find command. The Help menu of the editors  contains the following topics:

  • Getting Started advises what you can do best when you start up this tool for the first time.

  • Introduction to Tool tells something about the software specification technique that this tool is intended to support.

  • Main window explains the functions of all the components that you see in the main window.

  • Mouse commands explains what mouse clicks and movements you need to create and update the document that you want.

  • Edit menu commands explains the function of each command in the edit menu.

  • File menu commands explains loading from file and saving to file.

  • Print & Page commands tells how you can print or export as PostScript, including how you change the page layout and set the printer options.

  • Miscellaneous commands contains some other things that are worth to mention like fonts, find and replace, scaling, etc.

  • Version gives the version and the authors of TCM.

  • Copying. TCM 2.0 and higher is being released under the GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE. See http://www.gnu.org and question B.11 in the FAQ.

  • Change Log. Show the change log, i.e. the differences between the consecutive versions of TCM.


next up previous contents index
Next: 3. Diagram Editing Up: Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling Previous: 1. Introduction
Henk van de Zandschulp
2003-01-20